Access Control List

Access Control List or ACL is according to the Wikipedia definition, “...ACL specifies which users or system processes are granted access to objects, as well as what operations are allowed to be performed on given objects.” In the case of Joomla there are two separate aspects to its Access Control List which site administrators can control:

Which users can gain access to what parts of the website? For example, will a given menu choice be visible for a given user? A registered user can view, but the public at large cannot. Perhaps the menu choice is hidden from all except an Editor user and higher.

What operations (or actions) can a user perform on any given object? For example, can a user listed as an "Editor" submit an article or only edit an existing article. The ACL settings could allow submitting and editing, or allow a change an article's category, add tags or any combination.

The implementation of ACL in Joomla was substantially changed in the Joomla! 2.5 series which allowed for more flexibility in groups and permissions.



Aliases are short pieces of text that represent the title of certain items (Menu items, Articles and Categories) in a machine-friendly format. This format allows only lowercase letters and dashes (-).

Aliases are used by Joomla to make Search Engine Friendly URLs. There are technical limitations to the types of characters that can be included in URLs, so Joomla prevents problems with invalid characters by allowing you to specify an alias.

You can fill in an alias yourself. If you leave the alias field empty, Joomla will automatically create an alias from the Title field of an item when it is saved. This means that if you edit the title of an item, but you leave the old alias in its field, the alias (and the URL that is created from it) will not change. Empty the alias field if you want generate a new alias.



In Joomla! an Article is a piece of content consisting of text (HTML), possibly with links to other resources (for example, images). Articles are the basic units of information in the content system and the bottom level in the content hierarchy. Since Joomla! Joomla 2.5, each Article is in exactly one Category. A Category can be in another Category making it a sub Category. It is also possible to have Uncategorised Articles. These articles exist without being associated with any Category.

Before Joomla! 2.5 and earlier versions, an Article was the third level in the hierarchy SectionsCategories → Articles. Now an Article is a bottom level and will always be the second level or greater in hierarchy.

Articles are maintained using the Article Manager (see the Content Article Manager for Joomla 3.4 or the Content Article Manager for Joomla 2.5) which can be reached in the Administrator (Back-end) by clicking on the Content menu, then the Article Manager menu item.

See also: Category



An anchor is created using the tag in HTML. An anchor allows you to place a bookmark inside an HTML page. In Joomla!, you can place an anchor inside an article (for example, using the TinyMCE editor). This lets you create a link that will go directly to that point in the article.

The HTML source code for an anchor looks like the following:

You can link to an anchor from within the same page using the HTML code

Clicking that link will take you directly to the location of the anchor tag.

You can link to an anchor in a different page by appending "#" plus the anchor name to the end of the URL. In the example above, if the URL for the article was, then you could link directly to the anchor in that page with the URL


Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)

A Cascading Style Sheet or CSS is used to control the presentation of an XHTML page. For example, a CSS file will often control the font, margins, color, background graphics, and other aspects of a web page's appearance. CSS allows you to separate the content of an XHTML page from it's appearance. In Joomla!, CSS files (for example, template.css) are normally part of the template.

See also: Template, Page Class Suffix, Module Class Suffix